This table contains special characters.
|Symbol||Name of the symbol||Similar glyphs or concepts|
|' '||Apostrophe||Quotation mark, Guillemet, Prime, Grave|
|⁂||Asterism||Dinkus, Therefore sign|
There are 14 punctuation marks that are used in the English language. They are: the period, question mark, exclamation point, comma, colon, semicolon, dash, hyphen, brackets, braces, parentheses, apostrophe, quotation mark, and ellipsis.
A punctuation mark is a symbol such as a period, comma, or question mark that you use to divide written words into sentences and clauses.
The colon is the symbol ":". It is used in a number of different ways in mathematics. 1. To denote ratio or odds, as in 2:1 (voiced "two to one").
a small starlike symbol (*), used in writing and printing as a reference mark or to indicate omission, doubtful matter, etc. Linguistics. the figure of a star (*) used to mark an utterance that would be considered ungrammatical or otherwise unacceptable by native speakers of a language, as in * I enjoy to ski.
When a colon introduces a list of things, do not capitalize the first word after the colon unless it is a proper noun. When a colon introduces a phrase or an incomplete sentence that is meant to add information to the sentence before it, do not capitalize the first word after the colon unless it is a proper noun.
A colon is used to give emphasis, present dialogue, introduce lists or text, and clarify composition titles. Emphasis—Capitalize the first word after the colon only if it is a proper noun or the start of a complete sentence.
In modern English-language printing, no space is placed before a colon and a single space is placed after it. In French-language typing and printing, the traditional rules are preserved. One or two spaces may be and have been used after a colon.
Inverted commas are punctuation marks that are used in writing to show where speech or a quotation begins and ends. They are usually written or printed as ' ' or “ ”. Inverted commas are also sometimes used around the titles of books, plays, or songs, or around a word or phrase that is being discussed.
When two words are shortened into one, the apostrophe replaces the missing letter(s). This combined word is called a contraction. Examples: It is or it has = it's. (i t apostrophe s)
The apostrophe (' or ') is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets. In English, the apostrophe is used for three basic purposes: The marking of the omission of one or more letters, e.g. the contraction of "do not" to "don't".
Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between quotation marks (" ") and there is no change in these words.
A reporting verb is a word which is used to talk about or report on other people's work. Reporting verbs can be used to great effect, but the difficulty with using them is that there are many, and each of them has a slightly different and often subtle meaning.
Direct to Reported Speech and vice versa for Direct Speech With Time Expression
|Direct Speech||Reported Speech|
|yesterday||the day before|
|now||then / at that time|
|tomorrow||the next day / the following day|
|last night||the night before / the previous night|
Declaration speech act is the act that makes the propositional content corresponds with the reality. This type of speech act is the same as Austin's performative sentence.
The speech act theory was introduced by Oxford philosopher J.L. Austin in How to Do Things With Words and further developed by American philosopher J.R. Searle. It considers the degree to which utterances are said to perform locutionary acts, illocutionary acts, and/or perlocutionary acts.
Austin was the creator of speech act theory: He made clear that by saying something we do perform an action or just state things. He also stated that there are differences in perceiving a speech act by differentiating a speech act into locution, illocution and perlocution.
The conveyed utterances are paramount to the actions performed. There are three types of acts in the speech acts, they are locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary.
The illocutionary force of an utterance corresponds roughly to the intent of the speaker (to warn, to ask, to order). The perlocutionary effect is the effect the utterance might have on a hearer (to amaze, to bore, to frighten).
A propositional act is a speech act that a speaker performs when referring or predicating in an utterance. The following utterances all have the same propositional act despite their different illocutionary acts, utterance acts, and perlocutionary acts: You go home.