Carbon is a chemical element, like hydrogen, oxygen, lead or any of the others in the periodic table. Carbon is a very abundant element. It exists in pure or nearly pure forms – such as diamonds and graphite – but can also combine with other elements to form molecules.
Carbon atoms comprise a nucleus of neutrons and six protons surrounded by six electrons. Quantum mechanics dictates that the first two electrons occupy the inner atomic orbital, while the remaining four electrons have wavefunctions that only half-fill the second standard and three second principal orbitals.
Carbon is an essential element for all life forms on Earth. Whether these life forms take in carbon to help manufacture food or release carbon as part of respiration, the intake and output of carbon is a component of all plant and animal life. Carbon is in a constant state of movement from place to place.
More than 99 per cent of the carbon in the carbon cycle is found in the Earth's crust. Most of this has a biological origin, deposited on the ocean floor from the remains of the many marine creatures that use calcium carbonate in their skeletons and shells.
Carbon is a non-metal element. At room temperature it is in a solid state. Carbon exists in different forms, including graphite, diamond and graphene. Depending on its form carbon has different properties.
Carbon color is usually referred to as a dark mixture of blue, gray, and black. It has a very soot-like appearance to it. It appears to be pitch dark. Charcoal gray is probably the closest a person can get to describing "carbon" color.
On Earth, most carbon is stored in rocks and sediments, while the rest is located in the ocean, atmosphere, and in living organisms. These are the reservoirs, or sinks, through which carbon cycles.
Group 14 is the carbon family. The five members are carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead. All of these elements have four electrons in their outermost energy level. Of the Group 14 elements, only carbon and silicon form bonds as nonmetals (sharing electrons covalently).
carbon group element, any of the six chemical elements that make up Group 14 (IVa) of the periodic table—namely, carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).
These include carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), oxygen (O), sulfur (S) and selenium (Se). Halogens: The top four elements of Group 17, from fluorine (F) through astatine (At), represent one of two subsets of the nonmetals.
|Atomic number (Z)||6|
|Group||group 14 (carbon group)|
Amorphous carbon is used to make inks and paints. It is also used in batteries. Graphite is used as the lead in your pencils. It is also used in the production of steel.
Life on earth would not be possible without carbon. This is in part due to carbon's ability to readily form bonds with other atoms, giving flexibility to the form and function that biomolecules can take, such as DNA and RNA, which are essential for the defining characteristics of life: growth and replication.
All pure forms of carbon (graphite, diamond, amorphous carbon, etc.) are not flammable. However, some compounds containing carbon, such as methane (CH4) are quite flammable. With some of those compounds as an exception, most of the time, carbon will not become flammable.
Despite carbon's ability to make 4 bonds and its presence in many compounds, it is highly unreactive under normal conditions.
Elemental carbon is an inert substance, insoluble in water, diluted acids and bases, as well as organic solvents. At high temperatures it binds with oxygen to form carbon monoxide or dioxide.
Carbon dioxide is a colorless gas that is heavier than air. Carbon dioxide does not burn. At low concentrations, carbon dioxide gas has no odor. At high concentrations, it has a sharp, acidic smell.
Discovered: First isolated by H. Moissan in 1886 after 74 years of efforts by various investigators (The unknown element had been observed as a constituent of minerals.)
Trimethylaminuria is a disorder in which the body is unable to break down trimethylamine, a chemical compound that has a pungent odor. Trimethylamine has been described as smelling like rotting fish, rotting eggs, garbage, or urine.
The most likely effect of exposure to carbon black is lung disease. Inhaling carbon black particles can irritate the lungs and cause coughing. Carbon black can also irritate the eyes, nose and throat. When people are exposed to high levels of carbon black over many years, the particles may lodge deep in their lungs.