“Et al.” is short for the Latin term “et alia,” meaning “and others.” It is used in academic citations when referring to a source with multiple authors: Hulme et al. (2019) argue that … Different citation styles have different rules for when to use “et al.” Below, we explain the rules for APA, MLA, and Chicago.
How to Use Et Al.
The abbreviation “et al.” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten in-text citations with three or more authors. Here's how it works: Only include the first author's last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
If you have a choice, consider using “et al.” in your reference list. This is preferable, since it helps keep your references succinct. To use “et al.” in your references, state the name of the first listed author and follow it by “et al.” in italics in the author section of the citation.
In the citation, if a source has three or more authors, the name of the first author should be given, followed by the phrase “et al.” Example citations: It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones et al., 2011).
The phrase “et al.” is used with in-text citations only when referencing a source that has three or more authors. Include the name of only the first author's last name plus “et al.” in every citation.
In Harvard style, to reference a journal article, you need the author name(s), the year, the article title, the journal name, the volume and issue numbers, and the page range on which the article appears. If you accessed the article online, add a DOI (digital object identifier) if available.
DOIs can be found in database records and the reference lists of published works. A URL specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser.
Digital Object Identifier
A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is a string of numbers, letters and symbols used to permanently identify an electronic article or book and link to it on the web. The DOI helps readers locate a document even if the physical location of the document changes.
To find a DOI number for an article, look on the first page and in the header or footer information. If you see a "DOI:" followed by a string of numbers, you'll know that you have found it.
Where to find the report number. Many reports are associated with a specific number. If a report has a number, it will typically be listed in the database where you found the report. It will also generally appear on the cover or title page of the report itself.
Typically, Oxford, Chicago and Turabian will use footnotes for in-text citations. MLA and APA will also use footnotes but to provide content or copyright information, and not typically for attribution.
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