The term nucleic acid is the overall name for DNA and RNA, members of a family of biopolymers, and is synonymous with polynucleotide. Nucleic acids were named for their initial discovery within the nucleus, and for the presence of phosphate groups (related to phosphoric acid).
Nucleic acids are the most important macromolecules for the continuity of life. They carry the genetic blueprint of a cell and carry instructions for the functioning of the cell. The two main types of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
The three main functions of nucleic acids are gene expression and regulation of cellular activities, storage and transmission of genetic information.
Nucleic acids are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell, and, by directing the process of protein synthesis, they determine the inherited characteristics of every living thing.
Without DNA, cells could not reproduce, which would mean extinction of the species. Normally, the nucleus makes copies of chromosomal DNA, then segments of DNA recombine, and next the chromosomes divide twice, forming four haploid egg or sperm cells.
Humans have always eaten DNA from plants and animals. Most plants or animal cells contain about 30,000 genes, and most GM crops contain an additional 1-10 genes in their cells. We all eat DNA in our diets, mainly from fresh food and the composition of DNA in GM food is the same as that in non-GM food.
physician Friedrich Miescher
Nucleic acids were discovered in 1868, when twenty-four-year-old Swiss physician Friedrich Miescher isolated a new compound from the nuclei of white blood cells.
Nucleic acids are the molecules that code the genetic information of organisms. The two nucleic acids used in the repair, reproduction, and protein synthesis are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, as shown in the graphic) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA and RNA are polymers made up of monomers called nucleotides.
Nucleic acids are found in all living things, including the foods you eat. Based on current research, meat, fish, seafood, legumes, and mushrooms contain the highest levels of these compounds.
DNA's unique structure enables the molecule to copy itself during cell division. When a cell prepares to divide, the DNA helix splits down the middle and becomes two single strands. These single strands serve as templates for building two new, double-stranded DNA molecules - each a replica of the original DNA molecule.
Genes carry instructions that tell your cells how to work and grow. Cells are the building blocks of the body. Every part of your body is made up of billions of cells working together. Genes are arranged in structures called chromosomes.
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A gene is a short section of DNA. Your genes contain instructions that tell your cells to make molecules called proteins. Proteins perform various functions in your body to keep you healthy. Each gene carries instructions that determine your features, such as eye colour, hair colour and height.
From every cell it would reach from the earth to the Sun a hundred times that is a lot of DNA DNAMoreFrom every cell it would reach from the earth to the Sun a hundred times that is a lot of DNA DNA strands are so long that they must be packaged. Special.
Gregor Mendel. Gregor Mendel's work in pea led to our understanding of the foundational principles of inheritance. The Father of Genetics. Like many great artists, the work of Gregor Mendel was not appreciated until after his death.
Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use.
DNA is contained in blood, semen, skin cells, tissue, organs, muscle, brain cells, bone, teeth, hair, saliva, mucus, perspiration, fingernails, urine, feces, etc. Where can DNA evidence be found at a crime scene? DNA evidence can be collected from virtually anywhere.
Urine does contain small amounts of DNA, but not nearly as much as blood or saliva. DNA also deteriorates more quickly in urine, making it difficult to extract and produce reliable test results.
In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.
Two of the chromosomes (the X and the Y chromosome) determine your sex as male or female when you are born. They are called sex chromosomes: Females have 2 X chromosomes. Males have 1 X and 1 Y chromosome.
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes--22 pairs of numbered chromosomes, called autosomes, and one pair of sex chromosomes, X and Y. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair so that offspring get half of their chromosomes from their mother and half from their father.
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